El Valle Panama (Anton Valley)
History of El Valle de Anton
By Joseph Noto, Priest
EL VALLE DE ANTONThe craving to explore, together with the need for socio-economic relations has led to more daring men to discover, by different routes, from village to continent, from the microcosm to the universe.
One of those pioneers was Christopher Columbus who, under the command of one hundred twenty sailors and three ships called La Pinta, La Niña and La Santa Maria found the October 12, 1492 the continent baptized by cartographers with the name America in honor of Amerigo Vespucci. Rodrigo Bastidas (1501) and Columbus himself (1502) made the world aware of this portion of the continent called the Isthmus of Panama. These and other intrepid sailors discovered not only new lands, rich as a cornucopia, an amazing wildlife and unknown, but human beings who were called INDIANS considering them inhabitants of India.
In Panama lived near a quarter million of them scattered throughout the territory. Many of their leaders to this day perpetuate the glorious names like Chirú, Penonome, Nata, Paris, magpies and Guarare. Many, like Quibian, fought against the Spaniards, others were alone giving them gold, food and wood for ships, or as Panquiaco were his guides into the unknown, the Pacific Ocean. The human power that came from Spain became unstoppable, throwing every day deeper roots, founding thoroughfare, opening roads, building forts, temples and schools raising. On the Isthmus remain Portobelo and San Lorenzo, Panama Viejo and Cream among others, as eloquent testimony to the secular evolution.
In this vast geography, our eyes are now focused in a valley in the mountains of our Isthmus called EL VALLE DE ANTON, which has aroused amazement and joy, captured in words full of poetic inspiration, as the young Vallero Jorge R. Ruiz
Each Vallero knows his hometown, El Valle de Anton, as the palm of his hand and loves him as his home. Each Vallero sings with the poet Pablo Neruda:
I can not live only in my own land, can not live without putting your feet, hands and ears on it, without feeling the movement of its waters and its shadows, without feeling how my roots look to their mother substances silt .
Benencia describe this earth to the lovers of this community. Cocle, one of the nine provinces of the Republic of Panama, has an area of 5,035 km2, Anton is one of six districts and the Valley one of its ten districts.
The Valley, an area of 36.07 km2, is part of the mountains of Cocle, reaching the Gaital (1.185 m.) the maximum height).
The village is situated in the fertile valley of 18.3 km2 in the northeast section Anton district, about 580 meters above sea level on the road is far 125 km from the capital city, 30 km from the headwaters of the districts Anton and San Carlos and a few miles from the Llanitos, El Roble, Chichivalí, El Macano, Matapalo, Cabuya, Los Cerritos, Altos de la Estancia, Indio, and Mata Choking.
The Valley is bordered by the districts Penonome, Capira and San Carlos. map of the village of El Valle
The first boundary between Panama and Cocle, and thus, the Valley-were established in Ordinance 86 of time in Colombia. So what is left of the River Anton and El Hato, Capirita and part of The Medinas belonged to the province of Panama and the San Carlos district. Until 1916 the mayor of the district appointed to his subordinates, as Carlos Figueroa, who was the first ruler, and, to date, Capirita residents bury their dead in the cemetery of Mount Agu (Acute), which is in Los Llanitos of San Carlos.
For the intimate spatial relations, personal and commercial links between the Valley and San Carlos, from the earliest years of the republic, many, like Julio C. Coronado Arias, according to the testimony of his daughter Patria, fought to keep only part of the Medinas, Capirita and belonged to El Hato San Carlos, but the entire Valley. They suggested the government as possible limits the headwaters of the Guides and Cariguana Hills, the manure and Overnight lndia to the Cerro Pilon. In 1916, when the National Assembly ordered the material in this regard and adopted affirming the Administrative Code Ordinance 86, the secretary thereof, Manuel Maria Pimentel, coclesano, change arbitrarily, as claimed Vallero and sancarleños-limits, cutting part of the territory the township of San Carlos The Llanitos and attach it to Anton. This change has triggered angry protests from sancarleños, whose testimonies appear in the newspapers of the time. But no president or any National Assembly's National dared, for political reasons, to do justice to the claims of sancarleños.
During the first presidency of Dr. Arnulfo Arias Madrid, was approved Law 103 of July 12, 1941, which tried to update the Administrative Code. Hereby, San Carlos happened to the Province of Cocle. El Valle, administratively, went to San Carlos, being geographically within the boundaries of Anton. The mayors of San Carlos was elected as magistrates of El Valle, Javier Hidalgo (Decree No. 3 of January 15, 1942), Julio Coronado Pérez (Decree No. 14 of July 11, 1942, and Decree No. 7 of 30 April 1943), Vincent Greco (Decree No. 22 of December 7, 1943), Bartolo Pérez (Decree of April 10, 1944) and Javier Hidalgo (Decree No. 4 of September 15, 1944).
Act 103 was abolished by returning to the provisions of the Administrative Code. Strangely enough, until 1981 the boundaries of El Valle did not correspond to the extension of corregimjento, leaving them out of the stream of market girls, El Hoyo, cemetery, Yellow Creek and La Mesa.
2l October 1981, the Assembly of Municipal Representatives approved the Chapter I of the "Draft Administrative Policy Division of the Republic", and did justice to all the legitimate aspirations Vallera. Is undefined only part of the farm Potosi and El Pomarrosa.
OrographyAll who come to the Valley of the mountains are impressed. One of them, our friend Horace Guardia, wrote thus in 1952:
I was very admired earthly paradise valley. In circumference surrounded mountains and hills. North has three guards, proud of their beauty, share their greatness, joys and sorrows. They are the Straw, his brother and the imposing Caracoral Gaital. Following the Cerro Grande, Loma Grazing, the majestic Cariguana or Potosi, the mountainous Tolente, this is a playground.
Vallero are other hills, the Bijao, La Huaca, the Tagua, The Sleeping Indian Girl and Loma de La Cruz.
Some hills have had various names, for example, Cariguana that the inhabitants of Cabuya named for its resemblance to the reptile, the Potosi Vallero call it prevails today, though the first name (or Face of the Iguana).
The Cerro Grande sancarleños called oldest name-to what they call Vallero Cerro Leon, for his resemblance to the king of the jungle. The Cerro La Huaca, so called by the old men who hid a treasure believed that India, as the grandmother had Damiana Cherigo S., wrongly transformed Macaw Mountain, a mistake that continues to this day.
The Gaital is named for the palm, "Gaita" (bagpipes), which grows on top. In some documents called Pedregal at the bottom of the hill, being a rocky site. From The Gaital can see the two oceans. This strategic location was the basis of observation of the U.S. Army during World War II. On November 16, 1962 an Argentine military plane crashed into the north side of the Gaital, killing all occupants. An image of Our Lady of Loreto, protector of aviation, and a plaque placed in the apse of the parish church by the wives and children remember the tragic accident and the names of the unfortunate aviators.
But it is the Cerro de La India, which distinguishes and characterizes the terrain Vallera, inspiring myths, legends, poems. One day a mother told her son crying: Shut up, you're going to wake up our India Overnight. And the child was silent.
Photo courtesy of: Murli Daswani
HydrographyEl Valle de Anton, being mountainous, is head of large and mighty rivers that go to the Pacific and the Atlantic and the rivers Zarati, Anton, Mata Choking and Indio. The latter is extremely important for the third set of locks of the Panama Canal.* The same valley is watered by rivers and Guayabo Anton and the Downs La Pintada, El Limon, Yellow, Candelilla, Ojo de Agua Fria, Capirita, grazing, Papayal, The Embalsadero, Reforma, owls and other minor. There is also the Dry Creek, so called because during the dry summer or, better said, water seeps under your bed, and reappears near the park of the Virgin of Guadalupe in La Central. Rounding out the top three jets to beautify this earth: the legendary Three Maidens (Las Tres Mozas), The Male (El Macho) and The Painted (La Pintada).
The legendary Three Maidens Falls.
Photo courtesy of: Christian Goldner
* NOTE: The Panama Canal Commission is planning to create three artificial lakes in the provinces of Colon and Cocle, with additional expansion of 200,000 hectares to ensure water supply on aquatic life in this millennium. This expansion came to the Valley as the official description ...
El Macho ("The Male") Pool and Waterfall
Photo courtesy of: Eric Halliday
The Valley has hot springs at the foot of the hill Cariguana, at a place called Los Pozos. The water is warm and the bathroom is very healthy. Wells were frequented by those who seek relief from their ailments and rheumatism. From Panama to San Carlos was traveling by boat from San Carlos to El Valle in a hammock. In San Carlos had an express service of hammocks in groups of four, which also used pack horses. Every hour they took turns and charged B/.0.50 per day.
From March 7, 1998 provides the service of attention to the swimmers the Society for Improvement of El Valle. They, IPAT, have greatly improved the structure and customer service. The hot springs are located not only in Los Pozos. To drill a well out thermal water for swimming pools which, by its chemical composition is not suitable for drinking.
The Valley is six miles long by five wide around: it is a huge caldera and extinct collapsed volcano El Valle. The Caldera was a lake for five hundred thousand years. A geologist who came to explore the way for a company said that the Valley was the second time a small lake formed by damming the River --- that Anton and then emptied by the river ----.
But there are no local traditions in this regard. Only remember that The Valley was very muddy, as is proved by photos taken just about eighty years ago, and that in the last century, at a place called Los Pozos, hot springs, along with torrential rains, a landslide that originated dammed the river, causing a great flood. People were saved by fleeing to the mountains or climbing in trees. The hills Cariguana and Loma de La Cruz, among others, are clear evidence of large subsidence and landslides. Not without reason, there is near La Cruz is a place called El Hoyo and there, the edge of the hill is so narrow that, deservedly, was surnamed "The Violin."
Although we speak of the volcano and hot springs, the temperature of the Valley is as healthy: about 22 ° C average and a climate of eternal spring that attracts many as a playground and sweet life. The capital and foreigners spend their well earned rest in this land. In The Valley, as throughout the Republic, the rainy season starts in April and ends in December and May being the wettest months ocubre.
Flora and fauna
Among the exotic species that have appeared recently, we noted the conifers such as pines, cypress, pine and eucalyptus genus, at times, achieve a significant coverage. The natural forest remains in the main elevations. Vegetation in the hills above it Low, and stunted the brunt of the winds, in the extent that descends to the Valley, the tallest canopy it to reach 18 m. Except corotu espave and is rarely the presence of thick wood or thick tree trunk by terrain features. Within the town of El Valle prevail fruit, coffee, vegetables, ornamental plants, medicinal, and others. Another element of the vegetation cover are the living fences as papos omarnentales, bougainvillea and others.
What grows in the Valley is typical of the tropics and is found everywhere, but there is a unique plant, Zamia acuminata, a living fossil that is located in La Mesa and has been discovered and studied by the National University. (The zambia is a palm that has not changed.)
In rivers teeming fish and shrimp, a variety of birds enlivened with song the mountains and the mountain had tigers, deer, peccary, rabbits, monkeys, agoutis and sloths of long hair, sharp claws, slow and sleepy.
People remember that the tigers were so bold and numerous leading down to the pens that were in the actual playing field of reform and killed cattle and hogs. Paula Arquíñez, and nonagenarian, still shaking with the memory of the howling of the tiger and, until recent years, lit his ranch with the lock guard overnight. La última vez que se vio uno merodear por los contornos fue en 1976. The last time he saw one lurking around the edges was in 1976. The deer are basking in Llano Grande and led to raids that were always successful. Abrahana Rivera said his family and many Vallero ate as a child only venison and even sold to B/.0.15 pound. Likewise, the chestnut can be considered almost extinct. Mana are some cats, cats alone, churimaco, armadillos, foxes and squirrels. Were also many poisonous snakes, like the rare specimen "alcabú", which is part of the full body of spikes, according to the testimony of a peasant who stepped mistaking the namesake tree. He described as killed: I put on it a leafy branch in order to feel secure and not move and the machete I hit him nothing, I again hit hard and broke in two.
Photo courtesy of: Mario Urriola
In The Valley has always struck square trees and Golden frogs (Atelopus varius). The Panama Canal Review magazine says:
There are tree frogs are square and incredible colors. There are metallic green frogs, they give off great flashes when given the sun. There are other bright yellow, the famous golden frogs of Panama, as sought by universities and research institutes.
We added two more than those above. The frog "coral", so named because it has four legs black with red stripes like coral snake and, as people, is also poisonous and gives great leaps. Hay otra rana de color claro, que salta como la corala y tiene ventosas o algo parecido en las patas, que la adhieren firmemente a cualquier superficie. There is another light-colored frog, which jumps as the choir and have suction cups or something similar in the legs, which attach firmly to any surface. It can climb walls and hang from the ceiling walls, but most commonly is seen climbing to the treetops.
We do not want to leave unmentioned the four classes of bees: the mini, the red, the Italian and Africanized dc mortal sting, ten or more kinds of ants mistress of lawns, vegetables, trees and houses, and elegant white herons returning to The Valley as a harbinger of hope. Hope so, because we note with sadness that everything is endangered by the negligence of those who must take care of it and the desire to sell, but not enough to reproduce, and take away their natural habitat. We ask where it belongs, to make a forest park as a sanctuary for flora and fauna of the area before it is too late.
That new generations remember that until the middle of last century the valley was completely covered forest in the mountains and hills and swamps in the plain. Los viejos recuerdan que cerca de la Escuela El Valle, aún en el presente siglo, el agua llegaba, en el invierno, más arriba de las rodillas de los caballos. The old remember that near the Escuela El Valle, even in this century, the water rose in winter, above the knees of the horses. La selva estaba formada por árboles frondosos y de gran variedad tales como espaves, corotúes, guabos, robles, guayacanes, harinos, macanos, laureles, cuajaos, cedros, Marias, alcarretos, carboneros, tities, guayabos, nances y arboles cuadrados. The forest was composed of mature trees and wide variety such as espaves, corotu, guava, oak, guayacanes, meals, clubs, laurels, cuajaos, cedar, Marias, alcarretos, tits, tities, guava, noses and square trees. En algún sitio crecia tambien "El Arbol de la Amistad", llamado así porque a su sombra—en un plácido remanso del Rio Anton—se bañaban y hermanaban ricos y pobres, naturales y visitantes, panameños y extranjeros. Somewhere also grew "The Tree of Friendship", so called because in its shadow-in a quiet backwater of Rio Anton-Twin bathed and rich and poor, locals and visitors, Panamanians and foreigners. No preguntes donde esta ahora... Do not ask where he is now ... puede ser cualquier arbol... can be any tree ... pero si insistes te dire que puedes sentirlo en tu corazon. but if you insist I'll tell you that you can feel it in your heart.
There was also a large variety of orchids and other flowers had ferns, palms, stems and vines, moss, thick, colorful and soft Persian carpet which as we step up the Gaital. Es una sensación maravillosa. It's a wonderful feeling. Ahora sólo se conservan vírgenes El Gaital, Pajita y Caracoral, mientras que los otros cerros son talados y depredados. Now only remain virgins The Gaital, Straw and Caracoral, while the other hills are cut down and plundered. The head of India's asleep, which previously had beautiful hair of trees, this being peeled. Said in jest and in truth a Vallero: Today everything goes up, up the skirt of women's hair and India. Y todo tiene su repercusión en el régimen pluvial y en el clima que ya no es tan fresco como antaño. And everything has its impact on rainfall patterns and the climate is not as cool as before.
We take the opportunity here to congratulate people who, concerned about the harmful exploitation of nature, have decided to build greenhouses to their homes or are being organized to monitor and save our forests.
Geology of El Valle de Anton.ETESA is conducting studies and drilling of wells to tap geothermal power in El Valle. That has raised questions, fears, expectations and the desire to know the geology of the volcano El Valle, which encouraged us to read various geological studies and submit a summary to the reader.
Possible chronology of the Volcano El Valle de Anton.More than two hundred million years ago there was Pangea and Panthalassa.
Two hundred million years ago began the drift of continents.
Sixty-five million years ago, Central America did not yet exist.
Fifteen million years ago by the process of subduction volcanic islands are formed on a base Tertiary.
Six million years ago, Panama is made and the volcano is still active La Mesa.
Three million years ago Volcan La Mesa substantially extinguished by the action of Azuero.
Two or one and a half million years active volcano El Valle, then collapses and forms the lake.
A million years ago formed the three domes: Straw, Gaital and Caracoral and the failure of Rio Anton, south of the caldera, where the lake drained.
Forty-five thousand years ago was the eruption of Rio Mar.
Thirty-four thousand years ago was the latest eruption of Mata Ahogado.
Note 1): La Mesa, Choking Mata, El Valle and others are children of the same volcanic source.
Note 2): The boiler of the Valley was formed not by explosion but by the volcano caldera collapse.
Note 3): The boiler of the Valley is the largest in Central America.
El Valle: volcanic island.Over two hundred million years the configuration of our planet Earth was totally different. Existía un Solo supercontinente (Pangea) rodeado de todas las aguas (Panthalassa). There was one supercontinent (Pangea), surrounded by all waters (Panthalassa). With the passing of millions of years the supercontinent slowly and was subdivided among others, North and South America separated from Europe and Africa by the Atlantic Ocean, but until about sixty-five million years , Central America did not exist.
By the process of subduction, the crust that forms the background of the Pacific Ocean is sinking under the American continent, causing, from Alaska to Chile, the great chain of the Andes, the Rocky Mountains, the volcanoes that punctuate and frequent earthquakes we shudder to this day.
As regards Central America, this grand process, in the last fifteen million years, volcanic islands Cauxxń first and then the Isthmus at Panama is mfiere to know that converge toward her plate law;. tectórxicaă de Nazca, de El Caribe y de Cocos que la eonñguraron. tectórxicaă of Nazca, the Cocos and Caribbean that eonñguraron.
active million last few years was the one we know as The Volcano El Valle. At Configuration Panama Peninsula, volcan, some three million years ago, was protected from the direct action of the subduction and was substantially off. Substantial and not fully say it rarely has had spectacular activities, as discussed below. We like to think Volcano Valley as an island, not only because such was its origin, but because it was more like a perfect cone, to an area that emerged from the blue sea as a gift from God. Even today this is the impression of those who see this mountainous area from the Rio Hato base: an island projected on the screen of a cloudy sky with several cones, of which ours is the youngest. We call it "young" because the area there are boilers La Mesa, Mata Ahogado and Picacho Mata that are older, while ours is just one and a half to two million years. These volcanic islands - and great credit is ours - to join the isthmus formed, the "Bridge of the Americas," which set off a chain of events of global magnitude mmboe as changing ocean currents, deep alteration climate in Europe and the catalyst of glacial periods.
Volcanic edifice of El Valle de Anton.
The volcanic edifice of El Valle is complex, about 600 km2 and is the easternmost of Central America and Panama. La cumbre del edificio es de 20 km; y su máxima elevación actual es de 1,185 m. The top of the building is 20 km and its maximum current elevation is 1.185 m. (El Gaital), has two structures that are cntrecortan, the product of volcanic collapse: La Mesa, older and no defined morphology caused by volcanic events and lil Valley, the most important and well-defined type caldćrieo. con paredes abruptas y cl fondo plano. cl with steep walls and flat bottom.
The Volcano El Valle Quaternary volcanic edrlieuo located on a tertiary structure lzste is formed only by to a predominately lormaeion rgnca (S / lioeerio Middle thirteen to fourteen million. of years) to the Southeast and Sita - Val h) for lavas, tohas and - stratigraphic agglomerates are above the age igneous and have a ten to fifteen million years (Middle-Upper Miocene). If there is a geological section of the building are noted about desni-levels. For example, the Tertiary basement boiler-tat The valley is very deep, miennas than La Mesa and Cariguana are higher than the current level of the Valley. Another said of the lava and pyroclastic pre pyroclastic boiler and re-cent that is noticeable on the slopes of La Mesa and Cariguana.What is characteristic of El Valle is the structure of the boiler: Tertiary basement. material caótico del colapso, un sello de roca impermeable y. collapse chaotic material, an impermeable rock label y. finalmente, el sedimento lacustre. finally, the lake sediment.
The young volcano eruptive history of El Valle is the last one and a half to two million years. Is structured and complex, characterized by numerous eruptive phases. evolucionadas con carácter predumiriantrsmrsnlc cxplosivas. cxplosivas predumiriantrsmrsnlc evolved basis.
Mitral, activity was expressed with lava flows and CLEP-xxit · »x pm; lastieos material associated with Tertiary volcanic rocks dc Laws Jllurartttcnlos lcrciańas several very near and DCN [ll dc 1'0 Valley suggest that the building was not of major proportions. lie Lu laws xutemas. Lu lie xutemas Laws. los estudios indican que un poco antes de un-· J uno y un tercio millones de años Se fonnó bajo El Valle una . studies indicate that just before one-· J uno and a third million years in El Valle is a fonn. Jnura rrugmama somera (dc 3 a 5 kilómetros de profundidad) CHI'- gada t im yaws. Rrugmama Jnura shallow (dc 3 to 5 kilometers deep) Shi'a-gada t im yaws. que promeo una y otra erupción fuertemente explosiones, el i-Jctamrentu de la cámara y la formación de la caldera. that Promeo strongly again and explosions erupted, the i-Jctamrentu of the camera and the formation of the caldera. La xegtxrxla de eux crupcmnex probablemente determinó el colapso talderim lāse Aolapw lo comparamos con un edificio de grandes —- que amenva \emrSc abajo; basta aplicarle una carga de dinamita. The xegtxrxla of crupcmnex eux probably determined the collapse talderim Aolapw lase compared to a large building - which amenva \ emrSc down, just a load of dynamite. que al ser accionada hace que toda la construcción se —- y en polvo. which when activated makes the whole construction - and dust. —- wgtnt adelante queremos recalcar que el colapso del vol —-no fue del ltpñ explosivo como el Barú o Saint Helene (USA), sino por desplome. - Wgtnt Later we want to emphasize that the collapse of the vol - was not as explosive ltpñ Baru, Saint-Helene (USA), but by bust. Además, tanto La Mesa como Mata Ahogado y El Valle son manifestaciones de la misma fuente volcánica. In addition, both the Bureau and Choking Mata and El Valle are manifestations of the same volcanic source.
After the collapse caldéńco, magma desgasiñcado who was still in the House gave rise, about a million years to several domes found on the edge of the boiler itself and along the same ring fractures that had cont: rolling the collapse. The most obvious are the hills Straw, Gaital and Caracoral on the edge of the Caldera of La Mesa, and also, in the east. los domos de Capirita. Capirita domes. Después del colapso, en la depresión caldérica se formó un lago que duró miles de años, tal vez medio millón de años. After the collapse, the caldera depression formed a lake that lasted thousands of years, perhaps half a million years. El lago nacido de la actividad volcánica fue seriamente afectado por una falla hasta su desaparición. The lake born of volcanic activity was seriously affected by a failure to its demise. Among the most recent eruptions, the first and probably the largest, made about forty-five thousand years. fue la que denominan "de Rio Mar", donde halló el afloramiento más característico. which was called "Rio Mar", where he found the characteristic outcrop. The volume of magma expelled was great. como south and southwest of El Valle. Otra erupción —- 34,000 años, ubicada al este de la caldera de El Valle, Cn Mata .—- algo t uimxti ămadimos est/C detalle. Another eruption - 34.000 years, located east of the caldera of El Valle, Mata Cn .-- t uimxti something dear est / C detail. La —- lšcrlmtmt Opicv dia Jr pbùn utilizada pu: micxtms artesanos y dciscubàctta en Quebrada The - lšcrlmtmt Opicv Jr day pbùn used pu: micxtms artisans in Quebrada dciscubàctta
Our feet rest on the sediment that has accumulated at the bottom of ancient lake sediment material fact that has slipped or eroded. The last fifteen meters is 30.000 years ago and the town is built on it. ¿Qué hay bajo el sedimento lacustre? What's under the lake sediment? Chaotic material filling the boiler, pre pyroclastic caldera, and the tertiary base. We will know exactly at the conclusion of drilling wells Exploratory former holding ETESA. Investigación geotérmica. Geothermal research. Volcanes y calderas, subducción y placas tectónicas nos hablan de fuego, lava, calor, y gases. Volcanoes and boilers, and plate tectonics subduction speak of fire, lava, heat and gases. which on contact with water can ge-nerar cheap geothermal energy, of great national benefit and no pollution. En 1971 el Gobierno inició, a través del lntririgxii Um ;¿rr»4rrm1«u rn II \ullF dr Antńn. In 1971 the Government initiated through lntririgxii Um, "rr" 4rrm1 'u rn II \ ullF Antńn dr. 1onvcrgcnciu dc una ñxente de calor asociada o relacionada con una masa de mate- rial a altas temperaturas en el interior de la corteza terrestre; b) una zona de roca permeable que almacena el fluído que transporta el ca- lor a la Superficie; C) una zona impermeable que impide que el ca lor se escape a la superficie. Dc 1onvcrgcnciu a heat ñxente associated or connected with a mass of material at high temperatures inside the Earth's crust; b) an area of permeable rock that stores the fluid that transports heat to ca Surface; C) impervious area that prevents the ca lor escape to the surface. En el año de 1986, el IRHE establece el sitio atrás de la Cooperativa La Libertad y desde hace unos tres años prepara el terreno para abrir un pozo exploratorio de 1,500 a 2,0()() m. In 1986, the IRHE sets the site behind the Cooperativa La Libertad and for about three years preparing the ground to open an exploratory well of 1.500 to 2.0 () () m. de profundidad, otro pozo de reinyeción de 500 a 600 m. deep, well reinyeción another 500 to 600 m. de profun- didad; para disponer de los fluidos generados por el pozo explorato- rio; y perforar un pozo de gradiente de 71 m. of depth, to dispose of fluids generated by the river exploratory well, and drill a gradient of 71 m. de profundidad en el área de las aguas termales en Los Pozos como complemento de los estudios de flujo de calor. depth in the area of thermal waters in Los Pozos in addition to the heat flow studies. De resultar positiva y favorable la exploración, Panamá tendrá un recurso geotémńco que resultaría más barato que otras fuentes co- mo la hidro, el vapor o el diesel. To be positive and favorable exploration, Panama will have a resource geotémńco to be cheaper than other sources co-mo hydro, steam or diesel. As for hydrography, we distinguish between that surface freshwater and give rise to rivers and springs that supply our rural water and deep water springs. Hablaremos de es— tas últimas. We'll talk about you coming last. En El Valle, desde los 40 m. In El Valle, from 40 m. en la parte sur, se encuen- tra un acuífero con agua termal de 40" C., aislado de la Superficie por una capa impermeable y ubicado al pie de los cerros de Caña Blanca. in the south, is found aquifer work with thermal water of 40 "C, isolated from the surface by an impermeable layer and located at the foot of the hills of White Cane. Wells drilled are with artesian behavior, the pressure in the bottom of the wells is six to seven bars or slightly higher, due to its depth. The recharge zone is probably in the foothills of the domes.-do have been found during drilling lake sediments, which are nothing thing that the proof of the existence of the lake within the caldera. The exact extent of the aquifer. but it seems li-limited to the southern part of the boiler.
When one looks great volcanoes of note elsewhere Its slopes are poor in vegetation.
24 N3 640 Sodio K 38 Potasio CA 1 17 Calcicg Mg 101 Magnesio HCO3 538 Bicarbonato $04 27,2 Sulfato Cr 1,103 Cloruro 3< 'E B 2 Bom F 0,3 F, uor S02 125 . . . Sxlies Ph 63 Acido Temp. 36 C. Te mvßmuxrxg
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